What is Trench Safety ?

trench safetyTrench excavating is one if the most dangerous types of construction work on any construction site.

OSHA defines trench excavation as any type of excavated man made cut, trench or cavity in the earth caused by the excavation or removal of soil or earth.

Trench cave-ins are the greatest risk of injury to workers when working in trench excavations.

Trench safety is also keeping equipment away from trench edges and workers must keep the work area clear of unwanted debris, is prevents falls.

OSHA has a formula that is tabulated with all required safety digging depths and defines all information needed for a safe trench excavation.

OSHA requires some type of shoring when trenching in unstable soils, there are aluminum hydraulic panel type shoring, sometimes wood timber type shoring is used and a trench box type shoring can be used and moved along as the trench is excavated.

Trench sloping is another type of trench safety used when excavating trenches, there is a tabulated formula that is defined by OSHA when digging an open trench. Open trench excavating involves sloping or cutting back the trench wall at an incline angle or benching the trench walls. This type of open trenching will not be safe on deep trenching cuts, often there is not 15ft. needed to open the trench for open type trenching.

Trench excavating deeper than 5ft. will always require shoring, if excavating deeper than 14 to 20 ft. an approved registered professional engineer design maybe required when using trench protective shoring.

OSHA trench safety requires a safe access and egress to any trench excavation, ladders or sloped trench areas or other means of a safe exit for employees working in the trench excavation.

Trench safety includes locating underground utilities before excavating.

Trench safety is available at OSHA’S web site, trench shoring is available at your local rental or equipment dealer.

What is the history of the safety cone?

It all started back in the early 1940’s when a L.A. County street worker who did a lot of street painting, crosswalks and red light crossing painting, got the idea of making things easier when placing traffic barriers at the site when he was painting.

He and a friend who owned a tire shop, together with this idea, made a sort of round, square type “cone”, out of used tire strips.This simple device sort of worked, they were easier to use than the old wooden barriers, but still needed improvement.

They worked on this idea and came up with ” The Safety Marker ” which was patented by Charles Scavlen. The cone shaped road marker was a hollow conical tube with a base allowing it to stand upright in heavy wind or impact. This ” Safety Marker ” was a cone shaped cylinder with a heavy base and designed to make it easy to store when not in use, one Safety Marker would slide over the other, this was also a very easy to transport to any work site.

A patent dispute [many companies wanted to make ” The Safety Marker”] was resolved with Federal Regulations in the 1950’s. The Safety Marker has evolved into the Traffic Cone we use today.

The Traffic safety cone today is generally made of a rubberized and thermoplastic material which is somewhat pliable allowing movement upon impact, this is a Federal requirement when Traffic safety cones are used on Interstate roadways.

All Traffic safety cones used on Interstate roadways generally require a reflective area or stripe around the cone, each cone has to meet the Federal standard of 28″ high, when used on Interstate roadway projects.

There are millions of Traffic safety cones in use today, you will find them in parking lots, streets, school hallways, shopping malls, airports, backyards and almost everywhere there are people and traffic you will see a safety cone.

Generally the Federal regulations require a bright orange cone with a reflective stripe, but a safety green cone is also used for non highway use.

The ” SAFETY CONE ” has become the standard when anyone is working exposed to traffic flow or other high traveled ares. This safety cone has saved countless numbers of lives since the invention of this orange “Safety Marker”.

How To Locate a Septic Tank

Septic TankHow To Locate a Septic Tank

One of the first questions is why do you need to know where your septic tank is located.

All single family household dwelling home sewage systems have a septic tank if they do not have a sanitary sewer line or city sewer at their house. Over time because of the usage the tank will need to be serviced, they slowly fill with solids and need to be pumped and cleaned, this you cannot do, you must call septic contractor that pumps out tanks.

If you are trying to locate your tank and do not have a map from when the tank was installed, sometimes the system inspector or county inspector has a map or system lay out. If this fails you should look in the yard for a low spot, high spot, a spot where there is little grass growth or a brown spot, if all this fails the next process will be go inside.

If you cannot find the tank look in the basement or crawl space for an outlet pipe generally a 4” diameter pipe going through the wall to the outside, all house waste lines should connect to this one line, and run out the wall to your septic tank.

Once you locate the line inside, go outside and mark where it goes through the wall and comes outside.
Now look around, if you see no visible evidence where the tank could be, you may want to measure, the tank is usually 10 to 20 or 25 ft. from the house, this is where the tank should be. Next you need to start poking around to find the tank cover, this could be done by using a ½” to 3/4” rod about 4 to 5 ft. long, if you do not have a rod try a pointed bar or small metal pipe.

If the soil is compacted hard you could use a hammer and tap the rod into the ground until you hit the solid tank. If no luck try every couple feet working from the out let pipe, you know where that is, work from the house side back through the tank, this should be a sure thing.

If you cannot find the tank using the probing method you will have to start digging, start hand digging finding the out let pipe as it runs out of the house to the septic tank.

If you give up and cannot locate the tank you should call your sewer contractor they can use a backhoe to locate the tank. This will cost more, but is a sure thing, they will find the tank.

For more information go to:  http://www.excavating Info.com

 

What is a Backhoe?

BackhoeWhat is a Backhoe? A machine that is a rubber tired and self-propelled with its own power unit and hydraulic system.

A backhoe is a machine with a hinged boom attached on the back of generally a tractor type machine. This tractor generally has a front bucket loader mounted on the front end of the tractor, making it a backhoe-loader unit called a backhoe.

The backhoe is an attachment that is mounted on the back or rear of a rubber tired tractor. The backhoe is derived from the cable operated track type steam shovel.

The first backhoe was made in the mid 1940’s. They made a hinged swing frame attachment with a two piece boom and bucket which was operated with a hydraulic system. The swing frame allowed the backhoe to swing from left to right generally to a 180* pivot.

In the 1950’s manufactures made many hydraulic type backhoes generally all were mounted on a rubber tired tractor, a front bucket loader was mounted on the front of the tractor, this allowed the machine to be a very versatile tool used in the construction field.

The backhoe has a two piece boom, this digging arm has a bucket, the bucket is filled using a pull motion, and the bucket is pulled toward the machine to fill it. The hydraulic system allows the operator to cast the material to a side spoil pile.

All Backhoes have some sort of out-rigger system also operated by the hydraulic system. The first machines had a one bar [stabilizer bar went across the bottom of the machine and pushed into the ground surface this kept the machine level as well as stable when digging to fill the bucket and designed to keep the backhoe stable and not tip over when dumping the bucket at the side of the machine] later design for out-riggers was a single leg or out-rigger for each side, this allowed the operator to level the machine when digging and they were much wider when lowered, making the backhoe much more stable and this new system had a foot on the bottom of the leg this helped hold the backhoe when digging in hard soil material.

The first backhoe loaders were used for utility work in many cities and villages, the backhoe could do the work of many men in a very short time, from loading spoils onto a dump truck to locating a utility service needing a repair, and the front bucket loader was used to move materials and supplies on construction sites.
Today most all backhoe loaders are made with cabs or roof protection and come in many sizes with many models to choose from, operate on the same principle as when invented.
The backhoe is widely used in the construction field—in farm and Ag—landscaping contractors and many utility districts.

Today there are many attachments made for the backhoe, this makes the machine very versatile with all the added tools.

For additional information go to: http://www.Excavating Info.com

What is Asphalt ?

asphaltThe word asphalt is believed to come from the creek word ” asphalizen ” which means to make hard.

Generally today asphalt is used for all types of road construction for surfacing and resurfacing highways and streets.

The first asphalt used for paving streets was about 1875, this street was paved with asphalt, placed on the street in front of the court house in Newark, New Jersey, this is believed to be the first asphalt used in the United States, asphalt was used overseas before it was used in the U.S.

Later asphalt plants were invented around 1898 and the first plant was believed to be placed in Cambridge, Mass.

There were patents filed for the process of making asphalt from refining crude oil petroleum into an asphalt base oil, then mixing the oil with sized aggregate material.

Asphalt has been known by many names—-blacktop—-tarmac—-asphalt concrete—-bituminous concrete or just plain asphalt.

Asphalt today is generally made in a drum type plant, the aggregate materials and petroleum based oil are heated to a high temperature generally above 250 degrees F. this method is known as a hot mix type plant where the asphalt after mixing is generally a hot-laid type asphalt used for road surfaces.

The advantage to a hot-laid type asphalt, it is easy to work or lay down, installs as a smooth asphalt road constructionroad surface. Also the asphalt mixture can be transported in dump trucks many miles from the plant to the work site.

The hot mix asphalt is made of different sizes of aggregate for different types of uses on the surface of a roadway, the base type asphalt has larger aggregates for a base layer of asphalt and the top layer of asphalt uses a smaller type of aggregate for a smoother asphalt surface when completed.

Today paving is generally all hot mix asphalt, this material is easy to lay down using a modern asphalt paver, the asphalt is rolled in place and as the asphalt cools it becomes hard like concrete.

There are many types of asphalt today and there are many different uses for the asphalt produced.

How to Repair Lawn Damage

How to repair lawn damage.lawn damage repair

In this article we will give some tips on how to do an easy lawn repair where grass has been damaged or ruts are in your lawn a result from a home delivery or damage from winter snow plowing.

If there are bare spots that could be caused by different reasons, do they happen every year, is the spot under a tree or in the shade, is it near a building or garage.

There is an easy way to fix the lawn, first decide what area you want to reseed, how big of an area, measure the total square footage of the total areas you want to reseed.

To get the square footage: measure how many feet long x how many feet wide—example—10 ft. long x 2 ft. wide=20 sq ft.— if there are other areas to repair add them together for a total, this information you will need when getting seed and fertilizer also if you need to order topsoil or bagged soil.

What is needed before you start:                                                                                                                                                      Work gloves—safety glasses—garden rake—round point shovel—maybe a square point shovel—maybe a wheel barrow—grass seed—fertilizer—mulch or straw—maybe topsoil or bagged soil—maybe a garden tiller if the rutted area is to hard to hand grade.

Now you are ready to start, level the area you want to seed, if there are old debris and the lawn area is not level remove them, start with a level lawn area, once the area is level do you need soil, is new lawn area low, how do you know—will water stand there after a rain—if the answer is yes you will need some soil to level it out.

Once the new lawn area is ready for seeding spread seed over the new lawn, if your area is small you could spread seed by hand, sprinkle the seed, if the seed is a little too heavy, that is better than to light, the seed will need time to germinate, remember the ground should be warm, this means do not seed in the winter because most times the seed will not grow.

Next spread fertilizer over in seeded area this also could be spread by hand, you will not need as much fertilizer as seed so spread it on lightly.

Now you will need to place mulch lightly over the seeded area, straw works best, but if not available hay could be used, do not spread to heavy, do not pull the mulch off when the grass starts growing , you will only pull the roots out, the mulch works as a cover, it holds moisture helping the seed to germinate, gives the seed shade, keeps birds from taking the seed, generally the mulch will break down and work as compost and the mulch helps keep the ground warm allowing seed growth easily.

You will not have to rake the seed and fertilizer in the soil, yes you will need to water but do not over water this may slow the seed growth, the mulch will disappear as the seed grows.

This is an easy way to repair your lawn damage, any home owner can do this repair, there may be other methods but this works very well and is easy to do.

For more information go to http://excavating Info.com

 

What is modern trench Excavation Technology ?

Generally trench excavation work is done on every construction building project, trenches are used for underground utilities—gas lines—sewer lines—water lines—telephone—storm drainage and other buried utilities.

A trench is normally defined as a long and narrow ditch, generally a deeper than wide gully.

Modern trench technology is the development of specialized techniques,a way of solving problems that require a solution, a applied science or method of applying technical knowledge and science to the field of trench excavation.

With modern trench excavation technology and the development of computer software packages, trench excavation cost can be managed and tracked, it is also important that the technical part of a project be constructed as designed and engineered.

Modern trench technology uses pipe lasers, they are used to install pipe with the use of a laser beam and target, with the unit setup in the pipe and programed to the proper pipe grade, this increases the profitable or the amount of pipe installed per day, thus increases the profit for the construction company working at the trenching project.

Modern technology is used with GPS systems and computer software systems, these systems are used on many site excavation trenching projects, some of these GPS systems can be installed on excavating equipment used to dig and install underground utilities.

Technology has improved the trench shoring systems and practice of holding the trench walls trench safety and shoringup using a trench box type shoring, this allows workers safety to install any utilities without the danger of the trench walls collapsing on the workers.

Modern trench excavation safety along with technology is an important part of any site excavation.

Modern technology has improved the tools and equipment we use in trench excavation and improve the way we move the earth on excavation construction projects, this has increased the profit and help control the cost during construction.

For other information or trench safety tips go to OSHA’S web or talk with your supplier or dealer when renting or buying trench tools and equipment about the proper use and safety.