What is a Bulldozer

What is the bulldozer?bulldozer

This tracked machine was invented using the wheeled [Holt] farm tractor, which was used mostly for plowing and fitting farm fields, also for harvesting the corps.

The first use of this new tracked machine was for plowing farm fields, tracks would allow better traction and this new machine could pull larger plows, go over soft and uneven ground.

With the new innovation of all steel tracks, a front blade was placed on the front of the machine, used for leveling and grading, also the first bulldozers were used in the logging industry; the steel tracks would allow the machine to work in muddy conditions.

The bulldozer is sometimes called other names—dozer—crawler dozer—track type tractor—caterpillar.

The innovation of the front blade allows the bulldozer many use’s—power angle tilt [pat] blades—they are found on most smaller bulldozers, angle blades and tilt, allow the machine and operator more versatility.

The bulldozer with a straight blade is used for grading and leveling. Most straight blades are designed with a flat vertical moldboard, as a full load of dirt is obtained, it pushes against the upper curve of the moldboard and floats the blade allowing the operator to place a level amount of dirt as the blade is unloaded, dirt falls out under the cutting edge, which is the lower part of the blade.

The bulldozer with a u-blade is used for pushing large amounts of material, the outside corners of the blade are curved as a u-shape, and this blade is designed to move as much material as possible with minimal spillage.  This blade is not easy to use for fine grading and leveling.

The bulldozers steel tracks allow the machines excellent ground traction and mobility on rough and muddy terrain.

A bulldozer with “wide tracks” very wide steel tracks, distribute the bulldozers weight over a larger area—decreasing the ground pressure on the surface. This helps prevent the bulldozer from sinking when working in soft muddy conditions.

A bulldozer with sweeps—-bars that go from the top of the cab roof to the front of the machine, this helps keep debris away from the machine.

Today a bulldozer has many uses and can be seen on many most construction sites.

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What is an Excavator

What is an excavator?excavator

The modern hydraulic excavator is a machine design that started with the early steam shovel and early cable operated shovels.

The need to excavate material on early construction projects and load material into R.R. cars or onto horse drawn wagons without the use of a man and shovel is when the first steam shovel was invented around the late 1890’s .

The early revolving steam shovels were first seen and used around the early 1900’s. From those early shovels came the power shovels with gas or diesel engines and the pull type machines that were cable operated machines were also invented and used for trenching on many construction sites.

In the late 1960’s the first hydraulic excavator was seen and by the early ‘70’s they were on all major construction projects.

The excavator today is used on construction projects, by landscapers, city or village utility districts and the excavator is made in many sizes from over 100 tons to smaller sizes as 10 tons.

The excavator is sometimes called a “trackhoe” this machine has tracks that moves the machine and the tracks on the ground help keep the machine level and stable as the machine digs.

The excavator has an arm or boom and a dipper stick with a bucket and that moves with hydraulic fluid, hydraulic pumps move the fluid, makes hydraulic pressure and hydraulic flow.

Some excavators are equipped with hydraulic backfill blades and can be used for added machine stability when digging or for grading work.

Larger excavators have standard steel tracks with smooth track pads or small bars not deep cleats, one of features of the excavator is the low ground pressure allowing a minimal ground disturbance. The excavator moves with hydraulic drives and a hydraulic pump system.

Hydraulic excavators are mounted on a platform, this platform pivots 360* degrees, hydraulic pumps and controls allows the machine to rotate or swing in any direction. Some excavators have a zero tail swing option which allows the machine to fully rotate within the width of their tracks.

Excavators have an operator area or platform where all the controls are to operate the machine. This area for the operator is designed for the operator comfort with seat, legroom, visibility; joystick operated hand controls and engine decelerator are mostly standard on all excavators.

Many optional work tools can be used with the excavator—hydraulic hammers—hydraulic tampers—hydraulic thumbs—hydraulic angling bucket.

 

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What is a Skid Steer

What is a Skid Steer?Skid-Steer

A skid steer is a compact machine most commonly a wheeled machine, a tracked skid steer also has a useful place in the construction industry. The size can vary, average size is 5’ wide to 6’ 8”wide and the average length is about 10’ long to about 11’ 9” long. They are equipped with a standard front bucket, size can vary.

Skid steers have a hydraulic system for working the front bucket and other machine features such as hydrostatic brakes, parking brakes and optional work tools.

Most skid steers consider operator comfort and are designed with operation controls with hands and with foot controls. Skid steers on the average have a contoured seat to reduce operator fatigue, padded armrest and most have excellent visibility when operating the machine.

Many skid steers have optional work tools that can extend the versatility of the machine. Quick couplers allow work tools such as vibratory compactors—landscape rakes—hydraulic hammers—auger drills—grapple forks and many bucket sizes.

 

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What is a Lowboy Trailer

What is a lowboy trailer?lowboy trailer

The lowboy trailer has a drop deck, one end –gooseneck –this end hooks to the truck, the other end at the rear wheels, drops down and is a few inches off the ground.

The first lowboy was invented in the 1920’s and had a row of rear tires made of solid rubber, as many as 8-tiers, across the rear of the trailer. The trailer was loaded from the rear; you would drive up over the rear tires and onto the trailer deck.

The first lowboy trailer with a detachable gooseneck [gooseneck is the front of the trailer that hooks to the truck] was invented in the late 1950’s. Today all detachable trailers load from the front [gooseneck end] of the trailer; this allows the equipment to drive on the trailer without the use of loading ramps. Most all new detachable lowboy trailers have a hydraulic system that operates a hydraulic ram that raises the trailer to hook the trailer unit after it is loaded.

All new type lowboy trailers are towed by a semi-truck, all have air brakes, all are two axles’ trailers with 8-tires, larger heavy trailers have three axles with 12-tires, some special heavy duty trailers have four axles, and there are even very heavy duty trailers with more than 4-axles.

Some lowboys trailers are a beam type trailer which means the large heavy equipment is carried with a center [2-beams] under the piece of equipment, this allows a taller load, the load can be only inches off the highway, this type trailer can have 3-axles and ever 4 rear axles, some unit can carry up 100 tons. This beam type lowboy has a gooseneck that hooks to the semi-truck, the beam trailer use the air brakes system, and a hydraulic system.

There are other types of lowboy trailers and sometimes the lowboy has been called a lowbed trailer, they are the same trailer. The lowboy trailers have a large range of weight capacity from 10 ton to 100 tons and over with special units. There may be other trailer units not mentioned.

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What is a Front Loader

What is a front loader?front loader

A front loader is generally a 4-wheel drive unit with a bucket at the front end of the machine and a counter weight at the rear of the machine, this allows a balance when the bucket is loaded and when the loader is dumping a bucket of material.

A loader is also known as a bucket loader—front end loader—payloader—skip loader—wheel loader—loader and front loader. A loader is a tractor type machine usually a four wheel machine with a power unit and hydraulic system.

A front loader with tracks looks like a bulldozer, a bucket is where the blade was, and they operate same as a wheeled loader.

All loaders have a hydraulic system that operates the boom [2 arms one on each side] with a hydraulic cylinder that connects to the bucket and a cylinder linkage that operates the bucket.

A wheel loader has a pivot point at the center of the machine, this is an articulated steering design, hydraulic cylinders, one on each side pulls the machine left or right allowing a tighter turning arc and turning radius making the machine a very maneuverability and steering very easy.

The front loader has its own special use on—construction sites—quarry—gravel pits—factories—ready-mix plants and many other uses.

The main purpose for the front loader is to dig or scoop material, load the front bucket with material and move it or dump into or onto stock piles—backfill trenches or work sites—load dump trucks—fill hoppers at plants or a quarry.

Front loaders are made in many sizes and are work compatible with any project or work area, smaller loaders could weigh 5 tons or less and larger loaders could weigh up to 50 tons or more depending in the job requirement.

The operator’s cab of a new loader is generally mounted on a platform above the machine; this allows the operator a clear vision of the work area. Operator comfort is important for operator productivity and without operator fatigue.

Most new loader cabs are equipped with air suspension seats—large front windshields—large cab exit doors—easy hydraulic steering—a/c and heater—am/fm radio—easy hydraulic operating controls.

The wheel loader has optional attachments—load forks—sweeper boom—side dump buckets to name a few.

Also track type front loaders have an important use in the construction field when working in special conditions and projects; they operate basically the same as a wheel loader, with many of the same operator comforts.

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What is a Utility Trailer

What is a utility trailer ?utility trailer

A utility trailer refers to many types of different trailers, a utility trailer is a unpowered vehicle. The trailer must be towed or pulled by a powered vehicle, that could be a car—pick-up—ATV—utility tractor—lawn tractor—farm tractor—SUV’s or behind almost any powered vehicle with a rear hitch.

The utility trailer can have many different types and sizes—small garden trailers for pulling behind lawn tractors or AVT’s. They are flat-bed type, beds with sides, beds that dump, deck over types and tilt top types. Other utility trailers are larger and can be pulled behind pick-up trucks, some trailers are large enough they must be pulled behind large trucks.

Many utility trailers are used by landscapers or lawn maintenance crews. These trailers have ramps at the rear that flip down or ramps that hook to the edge of the trailer frame for loading equipment and tools. Many large utility trailers have this same type design to load large heavy equipment.

Utility trailers that have one single axle are used for the smaller trailers, towed behind lawn tractors or AVT’s. The trailer with 2-axles have 4-tires, some dual axle trailers have 8-tires and can haul heavier loads. Some trailers come with 3-axles and with a enclosed box unit .

Utility trailers used on the highway should have lights, small trailers do not have a braking system, all larger trailers must have working lights and a working braking system to be used on the highway.

All trailers are towed by vehicles, some use a ball type hitch, some use a penal hitch type, other larger trailers use a 5ht wheel type hitch, farm style trailers use a pin type hitch.

There are many types and different styles of trailers depending on the use or your need for a utility trailer, what type would best work in your job project.

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What is a Diaphragm Pump

diaphram pumpWhat is a diaphragm pump?

A reciprocating diaphragm pump has a diaphragm [generally a circle] sealed on all edges, inside a chamber, the diaphragm could be made of rubber or other material that moves up and down with a piston type action.

There is a valve on the outlet side of the discharge, this is a flapper type valve that closes when the diaphragm moves down, allows the water liquid to flow into the pump chamber, the diaphragm moves up closes a flapper type valve on the suction or inlet side, this allows the flapper type valve to open on the discharge side and the water liquid flows out, this motion is repeated at a faster rate, result, liquid is sucked or pulled into one side of the pump chamber and discharged out the other side of the chamber.

The diaphragm pumps are used on construction projects, by city utility districts, contractors, landscapers, and are available for rent at many rental companies.

Diaphragm pumps are a needed tool working in the construction field, when muddy water with sand—small grit—gravel—dirt—silt or other solids are mixed in the liquid that needs to be pumped—example: water line repair or installation—sewer line repair or installation or storm drainage repair work.

A diaphragm pump is a pump that is self-priming.

A diaphragm pump is not damaged if water liquid is not flowing though the discharge—running dry.

A diaphragm pump needs a motor to operate the diaphragm when operating at an operating speed, there is also a pulsating  motion as the liquid moves though the pump.

There are many sizes of diaphragm pumps made depending on the job requirements.

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What is an Asphalt Roller

What is an asphalt roller?asphalt roller

The early roller used for asphalt was a hand roller operated by men, the horse drawn roller was also used to compact and roll the asphalt, and they were a single drum unit.

When the steam roller was introduced, many had three drums, two at the rear that drove or moved the roller and one smaller drum in the front that was used to steer the roller.

With the development of gas and diesel powered rollers, the steam rollers were used less because you would not have to take the long time it took to heat the water in the boiler to make steam to operate the roller.

Next came the hydraulic drive rollers with all hydraulic systems, today most all model asphalt rollers are self-propelled, all have steel drums, generally one of the drums is used to drive the roller.

The asphalt roller generally used for asphalt compaction is a smooth two drum or double drum vibrating roller, this compaction seals the asphalt or blacktop after the final finish layer of asphalt has been laid.

When additional compaction is needed the vibrating roller drums are used for a better compacting force.

Asphalt double drum finish rollers can be used as a static roller or vibrating roller, depends on the asphalt thickness and how warm the material at the time of compaction.

Asphalt rollers are all equipped with on-board water tanks for water lubrication of the steel drums surface, this is done with a sprinkler system and it prevents hot asphalt from sticking to the roller drums.

The asphalt roller is made in many sizes from the small self-propelled walk behind, to small ride on units to hand rollers all used to compact and finish asphalt after it is placed on the work area surface.

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What is a Plate Tamper

plate tamperWhat is a plate tamper?

A plate tamper or compactor or vibrating tamper is made with a steel plate on the bottom, the size can vary from 20” X 14” to a larger size 30” X 18” the gas engine sets on a platform in the center of the tamper with a metal handle attached to the base, the tamper can weigh 150lb. to 300 or 500 lb. depending on the project requirements.

A plate tamper has a reciprocating vibrating action made by an offset counter weight built within the tamper frame.

A plate tamper moves generally in one forward direction and is turned around when moving in the opposite direction.

A plate tamper designed with a reversible direction can compact forward or reverse and is ideal for larger construction fills or trench backfill.

The plate tamper that is designed for smaller jobs like backfilling a utility trench or backfilling a retaining wall or backfill any area that is tight for space and will not require a lot a compaction, a lighter tamper is the right tool.

The hand held plate tamper generally has a handle that is mounted to the tamper main frame with rubber mounted shocks; this absorbs the vibration from the tamper and gives the operator less fatigue when operating the tamper.

The main frame and the plate of the tamper are often mounted with rubber; this also absorbs some of the vibration shock when operating.

Plate tampers are basically used to compact soil, sand and gravel. But they are available for compaction of asphalt and are used by most paving contractors, to work in smaller areas where the larger ride on roller cannot operate.

The hand operated dirt plate tamper is used in areas where large ride on rollers cannot work and are found on most building construction sites.

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What is an Asphalt Paver

What is an asphalt paver?asphalt paver

Asphalt as we know it today is produced by mixing aggregates [sand and stone] and bitumen, a petroleum base product and heat forming a hot mix.

When the asphalt mixture was developed around the 1920’s, it was used mainly for road surfaces; today asphalt is used in all sorts of construction projects.

The asphalt mixture was first dumped on the roadway surface; there was no paving machine to spread the material, so all the asphalt was graded and leveled by workers with rakes, all spreading was done by hand.

The first asphalt paver was invented around 1935, they were mounted on steel rails or steel forms, the material was mixed and spread on the road as the machine was pulled forward.

Later the asphalt paver was mounted on tracks and floating screed was developed, this was a leveling arm in the back of the paver that leveled high spots as the paver was pulled forward and the asphalt surface was laid.

By the late 1940’s and early 1950’s the self-propelled asphalt paver was being used on large road paving jobs, the floating screed has remained in use with many improvements.

As improvements to the asphalt paver were developed, one was the hydraulic widening screeds, this ended the need for the operator to manually move the widener, and the operator could now change the width of the asphalt surface, with hydraulic controls as the paver moved forward.

Asphalt pavers are constructed almost all of steel, the largest part is the steel hopper, at the front of the machine, where a dump truck dumps hot mix asphalt into the hopper, augers and a conveyor system move the material to the back of the paver where it is placed on the roadway and leveled with the heated screed that also compacts the asphalt as the paver moves forward.

New asphalt pavers have their own power unit or motor and hydraulic system. Some pavers are mounted on tracks this helps the paver when increased traction is needed when placing asphalt on the prepared surface. Many pavers are mounted on rubber tires, they are used generally when paving on a hard surface and the machine will be moving at a faster pace when paving. The pull-type paver works on the same principle but needs to be pulled forward as it spreads the asphalt material.

 

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What is a Road Grader

What is a road grader?

road grader

Early road graders were horse drawn, sometimes with a team of 4-horses, and with a 2-men team to operate the grader, one to drive the team and the other to operate the grader. These early graders date back to the mid to late 1800’s and most were used to maintain city streets and county roads. This would allow the horse drawn wagons with freight and supplies passage with fewer pot holes or ruts.

The horse drawn road grader was improved upon and built larger as the steam traction tractors were introduced in the early 1900’s. They began to replace the horse drawn teams when pulling the road graders, some pull-type graders were pulled with crawler tractors after they were introduced into service.

The development of the self-propelled road grader began to replace the need for a pull-type grader, [from around 1920 to 1930 Gallion Iron Works Co. developed one of the first self-propelled, hydraulic operated road graders] these graders had their own power and hydraulic systems to operate the blade while others developed the gear type controls to operate the blade.

The road grader also known as grader—motor grader is most commonly referred to as a road grader.

All new graders today are hydraulic operated with a motor, they are driven with 4-rear rubber tires and two steering front tires. Most graders are rear wheel [4] drive; some are all wheel [6] drive.

The grader blade is between the front tires and the rear tires. This allows the machine a longer leveling plane; this keeps the blade level to create a flat finish grade as the machine moves forward.

The engine and operators cab generally at the rear of the grader; this allows the operator a clear vision of the work area.

Most cabs are equipped with large front windshields—large cab exit doors— a/c and heat—am/fm radio—hydraulic steering—easy operating hydraulic controls.

The road grader blade can rotate under the grader from right to left and the end of the blade can move up and down. Many graders are equipped with front mounted rippers for losing hard surface soils before the blade can grade and level the work area.

Road graders are used generally to finish grade or fine grade the surface for road base to prepare for asphalt—building sites—street base—gravel roads—dirt roads—ditching or any other surface as needed to prepare for final fine grading or finish grading.

Today many road graders are equipped with a GPS system; this allows the operator to “precision grade control” grade to a precise level on many work projects.

There are many types of road graders and there are many uses for a road grader. The pull-type grader is available and can still be used for smaller jobs around the farm or driveway grading and can be pulled behind an ATV—farm tractor—utility tractor depending on the size of the grader unit.

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How to Grade a Gravel Driveway

How to grade a gravel drivewaygrade a gravel drive3

Most gravel driveways get pot holes, low spots, wash areas they happen because of use, weather, the freezing and thawing, the rains, all are factors, once a small indention or low spot starts, it gets larger as traffic drives over that area.

Here are some tips, if you have a small utility tractor, farm tractor or AVT maybe a York rake will allow you to level and grade you drive.

A York rake also known as a landscape rake, is generally a 3 pt. hitch, some tow behind rakes are available, the rake has fingers like teeth that are shaped like a mold board.

For best results use a York rake with a set of wheels on the back side of the rake [ behind the teeth ] this will allow adjustment of the rake, this keeps the teeth from digging into the ground to deep when grading.

Most York rake blades or mold boards will turn, if you are grading on the right side of the drive turn the left corner of the rake away from the tractor, maybe 45*degrees, what you need to do is wind row some top material from the drive into the center of the drive.

Keep the York rake adjustment so it just touches the surface, if too deep you will dig up all the large material, you want the finer material on top to wind row into the center.

Do the same on the other side of the drive, you may need to repeat this cycle many times for best results move the material to about the wheel track or just past on the other side of the drive, then row it back, very lightly touching the surface.

This generally places or drops the finer material into the low spots and holes in your drive.

Remember do not row material too far off the drive, it will be much harder to rake back on the drive, also you may York rake some unwanted coarse material and weeds or other debris that is not good material for the top of your drive, from this out side drive area.

This article talks about the York rake and a power unit to work the rake. If you do not have a yoke rake this will sometimes work , use your riding lawn mower and pull an old set of bed springs or plank float to level your drive, don’t laugh this is an option, it may or may not help to level the drive.

 

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How to Install a French Drain

How to install a French drain.french drain

First thing, determine where you are trying to remove the water from and where are you trying to redirect the water to.

This article will talk mostly about the homeowner or the do-it-yourselfer person or a small property owner who wants to dry there property from water seeping into the garage—store building—barn—basement—or running across the driveway.

Use these ideas and information to help solve your water problems, remember if you are down slope anywhere and it rains a lot, you will see water running across your property, you can control where it runs if conditions allow.

A list of things you will need to install a French drain doing the work you self: gloves—safety glasses—proper footwear—shovel or shovels—wheel barrow—3 or 4 ft level— pick axe “maybe”—4” PVC Pipe [with holes in it]—washed stone ¾” to 1 ½” size works great and maybe 4” PVC pipe fittings.

A French drain system works on a simple sloping gravity principle, installed with a slightly sloped trench redirecting the water from the wet area to another area.

A French drain system is basically a sloping trench 10” to 18” deep, collects the shallow subsurface water. The sloping trench works best with a pipe at the bottom, then washed stone, as water runs across the surface to the drain, drops into the trench, flows through the stone into the pipe and carried downward to the discharge area.

For best results always install drain pipe at the bottom of the trench, this allows water to flow away much faster.

Remember your drainage site may be different, here it is a confined space and all work will be done by hand, using the shovel load the wheel barrow, remove the soil from the work site, after the ditch is completed place the 4” pipe in the ditch with the holes up, the reason for this, water will flow on the bottom of the pipe and fill from the top of the pipe through the holes.

Place washed stone, the size should be ¾” to 1 ½” around the pipe filling the trench level with the top of the ground, the larger stone allows water to get to the pipe faster.

No dirt or topsoil covers the stone, it stays open and level with the top of the ground, you can run your lawn mower over the trench like the rest of the yard.

Remember the only water we are moving with this type of french drain is surface water, because you are digging a trench only 10” to 18” deep, if the ground slopes allows this.

Note: the reason you use 4” PVC pipe, it takes more volume of water and this pipe can be purchased at almost any supply store.

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How To Install a Rip-Rap Rock Wall

How to install a rip-rap rock wallrip-rap wall

In this article we will talk about a rip-rap rock wall installed in a smaller stream or creek to protect the bank from erosion during heavy rain and high water flow.

Rip-rap rock will vary in size from 50 lb. to 150 lb. and 200 lb. rock, the rock could be found in a gravel pit that may have a deposit of large rock mixed with gravel, sometimes a rock source could be from a farmers field or from an old barn foundation where rock was used to build the barn, rip-rap rock should be a mixture of larger rock and smaller rock, this rock will mix in better when stacking the rock for the wall.

Rip-rap rock could be found in a rock quarry, this is different from gravel pit rock, a rock quarry has all  rock no gravel mixed in with the rock, the rock is drilled and blasted to break it out from the quarry wall, there maybe other sources of rock in your area.

After you find your rock source, measure how high and how long your work area will be, get an idea how many yards of rock is needed, you may have to change yards to tons if your rock supplier sells in tons.

When you start if working in the water you may have to install a curtain or silt fence to stop the mud from flowing into the stream.

The bottom row of rock or toe of the wall, will need to be trenched in below the bottom of the stream bed about 18” this helps keep the water from getting under the rip-rap, place this row then prepare the next row, the bank should be graded if needed before this row is placed, it will depend on the size of the rock, if the row is one rock thick or more, generally the more rock the stronger the wall.

When you are installing a stacked in place rip-rap wall and when installed correctly you will be able to fill the wall with large and smaller rock, the correct mixture of rock size can create an interlocking structure,  when mixed together this makes a stronger wall structure that stops erosion.

Continue this cycle, it will go slow if you are building the wall correctly, another tip, use a trackhoe or minihoe machine with a thumb this will help when placing the rock, also to speed up the job a labor on the ground can spot the rock this will help the machine operator when each rock is selected and placed.

DSCN0724The rock rip-rap deduces erosion by resisting the water force and water pressure by dispersing the energy of flowing water, the rock shape is an important factor of the wall, the rock will absorb and deflect the hydraulic energy of the water velocities in flowing streams and reduce water flow as well as prevent erosion.

There are many types of rip-rap some may not be mentioned, there are many uses for rock rip-rap, there are other sources of rock, use this information to help answer questions about rip-rap.

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How to repair a home sewer line.

How to repair a home sewer line.sewer line repair

The first thing locate the leak, there should be a pool of waste water or sewage ponding on the surface of the lawn or yard area near the leak.

Tools and things needed:    gloves—maybe boots—shovel—short bar—maybe a pick-ax—hand saw or reciprocal saw—tape measure—screw driver—pen or marker—maybe a chop saw—rags or ripping cloth and sewer line once located, parts as needed to repair.

Now shovel and locate the pipe, you must measure to determine the size of the pipe, [the outside measurement “O.D.” will be different then the inside measure “I.D.”] once that is known, get the new pipe and two [2] flexible couplings.

When exposing the pipe to cut out the broken area, be sure to dig the hole big enough, give yourself adequate space to maneuver, you will need to cut the old pipe out.

Once the broken pipe is cut take it out and measure the new pipe, cut it, remember clean the area around the ends of the old pipe you just cut use rags if needed,  you will have to slide the new flexible couplings on over the old pipe, push it back far enough to allow the new pipe to set down between the new couplings, place the new pipe between and slide the coupling over and tighten the clamps with a screw driver or a hex socket drive until firmly tight, test with a flow of water, be sure the repair does not leak.

Once you know the repair is complete you can cover the pipe and clean-up the area.

If you have a cast iron pipe you may need professional help to repair, you will need to cut out the old pipe with a chop saw before placing the new pipe, maybe a reciprocal saw will work if you have experience with it.

Note: avoid contact with raw sewage it is harmful to human health, use gloves whenever possible.

The supplies needed to complete the repair could be found at any pipe supply company or lumber store, if tools are needed your local rental store could help or builders supply store may have the tools needed.

 

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How to Operate a Wheel Barrow

How to operate a wheel barrowwheel barrow

All wheel barrows have two handles to raise or lower a load, undercarriage legs that attach to the handles and set on the ground, a wheel and axle in front, a tub fastened to the handles.

A metal plate attaches the two handles together at the end handle past the wheel, this plate meets the ground and also stabilizes the wheel barrow when the operator dumps the load of material.

A wheel barrow is generally a 6 cubic feet size, and is a hand or manually operated unit with one wheel in front, the handles are generally 60” long, the tub or tray may have a reinforced edge for support when dumping the load of material.

To operate this barrow the load should be placed near the front wheel or over the front wheel, this will take some of the weight away from the operator, if the load is to heavy on the front it may cause an unbalance or unstable condition and the operator may not be able to operator safely, some of the load be need to be shafted back toward the rear of the wheel barrow to equal the load.

The operator should pick up the loaded wheel barrow by the handles, in an easy upward motion, keeping the arms straight down from the shoulders, using the legs to push the wheel barrow, the operator should lean forward slightly, this helps start the motion of the wheel barrow moving forward. The operator must use the forward “lean” and legs to push the load forward.

The wheel barrow undercarriage legs keep the barrow level and allow the operator to load the wheel barrow, the material should be loaded evenly this will assure no accidentally spillage.

The operator should be aware if the front tire becomes soft or low on air, the wheel barrow will not operate efficiently and become unstable or unbalanced.

The operator using the wheel barrow on a site where a plank is used, safety is most important. The plank should always be the correct size to carrier the load in the wheel barrow that is on the plank and the weight of the operator.

If the operator is working in soft conditions half loads would be easier to handle when wheeling and when dumping material.

When using the wheel barrow it is designed to dump over the end of the barrow by placing the front steel plate on the ground this will help keep the barrow stable when unloading.

The wheel barrow with two front wheels will operate in much the same way as a one wheel barrow, it will have stability, smooth rolling, accidentally spillage maybe lessened, and great when working on level conditions.

Never operate a wheel barrow without safe and proper foot ware.

 

For more information go to www excavating info.com

How To Use a Work Pick Axe

How to use a work pick axepick axe

A pick axe is a hand operated tool sometimes spelled pick ax, but almost always known as a pick.

It is believed this tools origin can be traced back to around 1200 to 1340 or earlier and is believed the first was made from horns of animals, more research on that should be done.

The head of a pick axe is made usually of metal, one end of the head is made to a dull point and the other end of the head is made like a chisel end about 1 ½” wide, this end helps balance the pick axe.

The handle is generally made of wood but metal and fiberglass handles are also used.

If you are a first time user and never used the heavy pick axe it may be best if you try a few practice swings. The pick axe maybe heavier after the practice swings to be sure you are comfortable swinging the pick axe try a few more swings, do it slowly at first, practice makes perfect.

When using the pick axe hold the handle tightly, don’t let the pick axe slip out of your hands when striking your targeted work area, if you don’t hold tightly it could ricochet and an injury could be the result.

When using the pick axe to loosen a hard surface or soil raise the pick axe head carefully over your shoulder always focus on the area you are trying to hit. When you focus on your work area in front of you make sure you have a safe distance, generally at about an arms length from your feet, this will prevent you from driving or dropping the pick axe on your leg or through your foot.

Make sure you extend your arms out as you bring the pick axe forward and down still focus on the work area you intend to hit.

Use the weight of the pick axe as you swing in a downward motion toward your target work area, if you swing too high and try to force the pick axe down you may lose control and not hit your target work area.

After you hit your target area, raise the end of the handle on the pick axe up, this will sometimes break and loosen the soil you are working on.

Depending on how hard the soil is, on which end of the pick axe to use, this may take a few practice swings to get the soil results you need to complete your project.

 

For more information go to www excavating info.com

How to build a rock landscape wall

How to build a rock landscape wallrock landscape wall

First a few tips, where is the wall going to be located, is the site able to support a rock wall, you will need to get a plan before you begin.

Plan out:   what base is needed—what rock is to be used—how high will the wall be—how wide will the wall be—how long will the wall be—how many rocks do you need—will the wall be dry stacked.

The base needs to be level, some rock wall bases have a concrete footer, generally most have a dirt sub base, the base must support the weight of the rocks as there are placed to build the wall.

Where will you get the rocks, field rocks, bought from garden supply store, bought from a quarry, this must be decided, the rocks should be thin or flat to dry stack, thin could mean 3” to 5” thick, round, and remember the rock size shape will help when you stack them, you cannot hand stack a 200 lb rock so keep in mind what rocks sizes you can hand stack.

Round rocks will be more difficult to stack unless you stack a triangle type wall, this would be 3 rocks on the bottom row, then 2 rocks on the next row then 1 rock on the top row.

If you are using flat rocks for the wall you will need to start with a level row on the bottom, depending on the size of the rock maybe 2 or 3 rock wide, maybe a total height of 18”, remember you are dry stacking, this means you are not using concrete to place the rocks in and letting them harden.

You will need to have on hand many rocks, more than you need because you will need to sort them and find the ones that stack together, some will not have the correct shape and will not fit in the wall, so order or get extra rock before you start building the wall.

We have talked about 2 types of rocks, 2 walls, round rock and flat rocks, there are other types of landscape walls, other footers, other ways to place the rock and remember in the northern states the freezing and the thawing is a concern when building a wall, in the southern states the heat is a concern, so check out the area you live in for the best rocks and way to build your wall.

 

For more information go to www excavating info.com